Development and Outlook of Pipeline Transportation Technology in China under Energy Security Strategy(Part 3)

3.2.4 Energy Internet Technology

Based on the technology of multi-source heterogeneous data fusion and mining utilization in pipeline networks, as well as the knowledge system of safe operation, a digital interconnected platform is constructed that has functions such as pipeline reliability evaluation, dynamic risk assessment, geological disaster warning and prediction, intelligent emergency support, and meets the industrial application needs of large-scale pipeline networks. Cooperate with the State Grid and other energy industries to carry out technical research on energy conversion, interconnection transmission, energy storage, operation optimization, etc., and build an energy Internet intelligent control system; Establish an energy big data platform for oil and gas pipeline networks, supporting the unified access of multiple energy data; Establish a comprehensive energy trading platform to achieve multi-directional energy flow, equal exchange, and sharing.


3.2.5 Fiber Optic Utilization and Sensing Technology

In combination with the national "East to West Calculation" strategic project, fully develop and utilize the network transmission capacity of laying optical cables in the same trench of the pipeline network, explore the construction of an integrated cloud management end business product system in key areas, and deeply integrate into the construction of national integrated big data centers, multi cloud exchange networks, and multi cloud service platforms. In depth research is conducted on the comprehensive application solutions of distributed fiber optic sensing technologies such as Brillouin, Raman, and coherent Rayleigh based on industry characteristics. Large capacity and multifunctional fiber optic MEMS multi parameter high-precision monitoring sensors are developed to explore the impact of complex environments on fiber optic sensing functions and performance. Temperature, strain, and vibration multi parameter high-precision distributed fiber optic sensing technologies and systems are developed to continuously improve fiber optic sensing capabilities and application value.


3.3 New Energy Storage and Transportation and Environmental Protection Technology

3.3.1 Hydrogen Long-distance Pipeline Storage and Transportation Technology

Hydrogen energy transportation is a key link that affects the cost of terminal hydrogen use. Pipeline hydrogen transportation is suitable for large-scale and long-distance transportation of hydrogen, and the transportation cost has significant advantages compared to other hydrogen transportation methods. The distribution and transportation direction of hydrogen energy in China are highly consistent with the main natural gas pipeline network, so hydrogen blending transportation is an important means to achieve low-cost, large-scale, and cross regional hydrogen transportation in the early stages of the industry. We should carry out the research and development of hydrogen blending pipeline transportation technology and early testing and certification as soon as possible, tackle core technologies such as high proportion follow-up hydrogen blending, carry out key technologies such as hydrogen damage monitoring for high-grade steel pipes, research and development of composite hydrogen resistant pipes and non-metallic hydrogen transmission pipes, and simulation of hydrogen transmission processes in a series of application scenarios. We should implement pilot demonstrations of medium and low pressure pure hydrogen pipelines, and collaborate with research and development teams such as joint development, platform construction, and hydrogen energy storage and transportation, materials, and equipment to promote the landing of key hydrogen energy storage and transportation project demonstration projects.


3.3.2 Carbon Dioxide Pipeline Transportation Technology

In the context of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, CCUS will become an important technology for large-scale reduction of carbon emissions, and carbon dioxide pipeline transportation is a key link connecting carbon dioxide capture and storage sites. Focusing on the technical difficulties of carbon dioxide pipeline transportation, special technical breakthroughs should be made to break through a series of technologies such as dense phase/supercritical carbon dioxide pipeline transportation technology, and key technologies such as pipeline transportation theory, release, crack prevention, and risk assessment for the operation of dense phase/supercritical carbon dioxide pipelines should be overcome. A technical system and equipment that can be applied in engineering should be developed to improve the design, operation, and safety control level of long-distance industrial dense phase/supercritical carbon dioxide pipelines in China, and promote the large-scale industrial application of carbon dioxide pipeline transportation.


3.3.3 Waste Heat and Pressure of Pipeline Network and Utilization of LNG Cold Energy

The utilization of residual heat and pressure in pipelines is an effective means of utilizing thermal energy and pressure energy during the pressure regulation process of oil and gas pipelines. Based on the actual working conditions of the main pipeline distribution station, different scenarios of waste heat and pressure utilization schemes are classified and proposed. Typical stations are selected for technical and economic feasibility studies to assist in the large-scale utilization of waste heat and pressure and energy conservation and emission reduction, forming a supporting technology for comprehensive utilization of waste heat and pressure. Explore the implementation of wind/photovoltaic technology in pipeline stations, valve chambers, gas storage facilities, LNG receiving stations, and other stations. The use of cold energy from LNG receiving stations in industries such as air separation, power generation, and crushing will generate significant economic, environmental, and social benefits. We should conquer the technology of cold energy cascade development in LNG receiving stations, form a safe and efficient comprehensive utilization plan for cold energy, explore cooperation models for pilot projects of cold energy comprehensive utilization, and solve problems such as project construction investment, equipment self control, and commercial operation.


3.3.4 Methane Recovery Control Technology

The venting and recovery of natural gas pipelines is an effective means to strengthen the end of carbon emission control. We need to conduct statistical analysis of methane emission intensity, study vehicle mounted integrated and sled mounted venting and recovery technologies and devices, and select typical stations to implement demonstration applications. We need to overcome compressor unit sled technology and compressor unit venting and recovery efficiency improvement technology under multiple scenario conditions, explore the implementation of methane leakage detection, measurement, and control, and form a core methane recovery technology and equipment that is independently controllable for China's long-distance natural gas pipelines, effectively controlling methane emissions.


3.4 Unconventional Pipeline Technology

3.4.1 Pipeline Transportation Technology for Media with Different Molecular Forms

With the interactive development of traditional energy and new energy industries, there is an increasing demand for transporting unconventional media through pipelines. The unconventional media suitable for pipeline transportation mainly include three types of substances: liquid hydrogen storage media (liquid ammonia, methanol, etc.), light hydrocarbons (ethane, natural gas condensate, etc.), and slurries (slurry, coal slurry, slag, hydrate slurry, etc.). Based on the applicability evaluation of existing pipeline materials, connectors, etc., research will be conducted on process system calculation, selection of pipeline equipment, design and construction, operation and maintenance technology and standards for the above-mentioned media. Through disruptive technological breakthroughs and breakthroughs in processes and equipment, safe and efficient transportation of various molecular forms of conventional energy, green energy, and chemical products in pipelines will be achieved. In terms of liquid phase transportation with different molecular forms, existing crude oil and finished oil pipeline networks can be utilized to add supercritical carbon dioxide, liquid ammonia, methanol, ethane and other chemical products in the sequential transportation sequence, achieving multi medium sequential transportation with different molecular forms and energy forms, as well as pipeline transportation of solid-liquid mixed slurries of various mineral resources.


3.4.2 RTP Non-metallic Pipeline Hydrogen Transportation Technology

Currently, both domestic and international hydrogen long-distance pipelines are mostly constructed using low-carbon seamless steel pipes. Hydrogen can easily cause hydrogen embrittlement failure in metal pipelines, so discussions on using non-metallic pipelines to transport hydrogen are becoming increasingly active. From an economic perspective, the economic feasibility of using RTP in the field of hydrogen long-distance pipelines needs to be demonstrated, as the cost of RTP materials is significantly higher than that of low-carbon seamless steel pipes. From a technical perspective, there are no large-scale RTP hydrogen transmission pipeline engineering cases at home and abroad, and non-metallic pipeline hydrogen transmission is in the technical research and development stage. It is necessary to conduct research on the compatibility between non-metallic pipes and hydrogen, safety assurance of non-metallic pipeline systems, and establishment of non-metallic pipeline standard systems.


3.4.3 Pipeline Bag Logistics Transportation Technology

Given the uncertainty of resources such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and the market in the early stage of new energy layout, we explore the use of high-pressure natural gas pipelines to transport new energy through capsule transportation technology. Liquid hydrogen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other gases are loaded into high-pressure capsules, and the driving force formed by the flowing gas or liquid in the pipeline is used to transport the capsules to the location where the resource demand side is located for downloading, in order to achieve flexible and efficient transportation of new energy. In the future, various goods from downstream demand can be loaded into customized bags and transported to downstream markets through oil and gas pipelines.


3.4.4 Superconducting DC Energy Pipeline Technology

Superconducting DC energy pipeline technology is a cutting-edge exploration that envisions the efficient transmission of electrical energy by providing a stable low-temperature environment for superconducting cables while achieving long-distance pipeline transportation of low-temperature media such as LNG and liquid hydrogen. Superconducting cables have the characteristics of high current carrying capacity and low loss. At the same voltage level, the transmission and current carrying capacity of superconducting cables can reach 5-10 times that of conventional transmission lines, and the energy loss is almost zero. Due to the fact that superconducting cables can only operate in low temperature environments below -196 ℃, and the transportation efficiency of energy forms such as LNG and liquid hydrogen is much higher than that of gas forms at the same flow rate, it can provide suitable low-temperature environments for superconducting cables, making it possible to use pipeline facilities to achieve synchronous and efficient transportation of natural gas or hydrogen energy with electricity. However, maintaining a low-temperature liquid state in pipelines with LNG and liquid hydrogen is both technically challenging and costly. In the future, research can be conducted in three areas: firstly, developing high-temperature critical superconducting materials to increase the operating temperature of superconducting optical cables; The second is to broaden the range of cooling media, explore mixed transportation methods of multiple media, and improve the adaptability of cooling media pipeline transportation; The third is to explore the feasibility, economy, and safety of large-scale, long-distance LNG, liquid hydrogen, and electric energy mixed transportation. If the cold energy contained in liquefied gas energy can be reasonably utilized to achieve the electrical energy transmission of superconducting cables in low-temperature pipelines, it can provide technical means for the large-scale West East Power Transmission and West East Gas Transmission, maximizing the comprehensive benefits of electricity and oil and gas energy transportation.


4. Conclusion

With the vigorous development of China's pipeline industry, technological innovation in oil and gas storage and transportation has achieved fruitful results, playing an important supporting role in ensuring the safe and efficient construction and operation of oil and gas pipelines. Looking forward to the future, with the wide application of high steel grade, large diameter and high pressure pipelines, the gradual formation of "One Network in China", and the gradual deepening of the energy revolution and intelligent revolution, the pipeline industry should not only provide security for the safe and efficient transmission of oil and gas, but also play a major role in integrating into the energy Internet, serving new energy transmission, etc., deepen scientific and technological innovation, drive digital intelligence transformation, practice low-carbon development, provide strong support for safeguarding national energy security and improving the construction of modern energy system, and contribute pipeline wisdom and strength.

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